Complications of type 2 diabetes and effective prevention
For people with type 2 diabetes, the secret to peaceful coexistence with this modern disease is to have stable blood sugar control. However, for many reasons, sometimes patients make mistakes that make the treatment difficult, even increase the risk of serious health complications.
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance. This situation, if prolonged without timely intervention, will leave many unpredictable consequences.
In order for the above problem not to happen, the patient himself needs to be aware of equipping himself with useful information about the disease. In this article, Zaloweb.com will cover the Complications of type 2 diabetes and effective prevention
Complications of type 2 diabetes
Up to 90% of diabetics fall into this group of diseases. Prolonged high glucose in the blood causes many other metabolic disorders together, causing damage to many organs.
Complications of type 2 diabetes occurring sooner or later depend on the type of disease and the course of treatment and control of the disease. Complications of type 2 diabetes are divided into acute complications and chronic complications.
Acute complications can have some cases such as:
Hypoglycemia: Patients who diet too much, overdose on sugar-lowering drugs can lead to this complication.
The signs of recognition are slow speech and gestures. The body always feels tired and sleepy. In addition, can tremble, scratch, sweat, …
Hyperglycaemia is too high: Patients will feel thirsty, urinate a lot, muscle weakness, cramps, … If not treated promptly, it can lead to coma.
This is arguably one of the most common diabetes complications. According to experts, the mechanism leading to cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetics is due to the high blood sugar causing the endothelium (the contact between the wall of the vessel and the components of the blood) to be damaged. This creates the opportunity for atheroma to form, reducing blood flow to the organs of the body
In addition, the affected vascular endothelium also increases the adhesion of platelet cells, gradually forming blood clots, causing high blood pressure, stroke, myocardial infarction, sclerosis. artery…
Some of the risk factors for cardiovascular complications that people with diabetes should be aware of include:
- Obesity, especially belly fat
- Senior age (60+)
- Tobacco addiction
- There is a sedentary lifestyle
- Family history of someone who died of a heart attack
Kidney complications are also a concern, because according to statistics, nearly one-fifth of diabetics need treatment for kidney-related diseases.
Theoretically, the kidneys are responsible for the purification of blood, eliminating waste products from the body through the urine. In people with diabetes, high blood sugar causes the small capillary system surrounding the glomeruli to be damaged. Over time, the glomeruli become less effective and cause protein to escape with urine.
In the first stage, when the amount of protein in the urine is still low, if promptly detected and intervened, the kidney function will still ensure. If left late, kidney function will be impaired or even completely lost (this is called end stage renal failure). The patient now is forced to regularly dialysis to eliminate toxins out.
In advanced kidney disease, you may see signs such as:
- Swelling of ankles, feet, hands
- Occurrence of blood in urine
- Feeling tired
High blood sugar levels above the safe threshold easily lead to many dangerous complications, including eye complications. Accordingly, the high level of glucose in the blood increases the viscosity and pressure of the blood. This has a negative impact on the microchipular system in the eyeball leading to vision impairment or worse, permanent blindness.
In addition, the fact that the body has a lot of sugar also creates conditions for bacteria to proliferate and thrive. If the patient does not pay attention to proper eye hygiene, it will easily become infected with infections and have problems with inflammation and eye pain.
In fact, the most common complications of eye diabetes include: glaucoma, cataracts, retinopathy …
Diabetic neurological complications are divided into two main groups including: peripheral neurological complications and autonomic neurological complications. The cause of this condition is due to high blood glucose, uncontrollable for a long time, damaging the nerve sheath, thereby reducing the rate of nerve conduction.
Not only that, high blood sugar also affects the circuits surrounding the nerves. The most visible consequence is that the blood flow is rich in nutrients and oxygen to nourish the nerves, and over time, the nerve fibers also deteriorate and decrease in function.
With peripheral neurological complications, the patient often feels:
- Numbness, loss of sensation in the extremities. This condition is quite common and makes it impossible to detect injuries on the legs and arms.
- Increased risk of infection is higher than normal.
- Stinging, burning.
- Severe pain (worsened at night)
Particularly in autonomic nerve complications (controlling many different organs), the symptoms of the disease will vary depending on the organ damaged, such as:
- Digestive system: constipation, diarrhea, vomiting …
- Urinary system, genitourinary system: erectile dysfunction, uncontrolled urination, urinary tract infection …
- Skin: reduced sweat production
Complications of infection
Most people with diabetes are prone to infectious complications due to high blood glucose levels. This creates opportunities for pathogenic bacteria to grow and weakens the body’s immune system. Therefore, even if it is a small wound on the skin, it takes a long time to recover.
Moreover, with diabetes, in addition to the disorder of sugar metabolism, the patient also has dyslipidemia, which causes the hardening of the blood vessels, narrowing, and the blood cannot reach locations far from the heart. Therefore, when encountering any damage, the white blood cells of the immune system are not enough to fight the pathogen, so the risk of infection is very high.
Some types of infections that patients are prone to encounter include: urinary tract infection, lung infection, skin-soft tissue infection, oral infection …
How to effectively prevent type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes has many implications for the health and life of the patient. Moreover, medical has yet to find a complete cure for the disease. Therefore disease prevention is considered the most important factor. Unlike type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes can completely prevent disease with a healthy lifestyle, diet and exercise.
Reasonable diet for type 2 diabetes
A healthy, nutritious diet introduced by the World Diabetes Association helps people prevent disease effectively as:
- Eat lots of fresh vegetables and fruits: Eat at least 3 servings of vegetables and up to 3 servings of fresh fruit per day.
- Prefer to drink water, tea or coffee instead of soft drinks, sugary fruit juices or other sugar-rich beverages.
- Limit alcoholic beverages.
- Limit sweet, glucose-rich foods such as chocolate, jam, white bread, pasta,…
- Prioritize eating lean white meats, poultry or seafood, and limit red meat and processed meats.
- Use unsaturated fats such as sunflower oil, olive oil, corn oil, canola oil instead of saturated fats such as butter, palm oil, coconut oil, animal fat,…
Reasonable exercise regimen for type 2 diabetes
Walking: Experts recommend that each person should walk for a total of 150 minutes per week (average 30 minutes per day), regularly weekdays, without stopping for more than 2 consecutive days.
Resistance training: Using exercises like lifting weights 2-3 times per week, doing 60 minutes each time with young people and breaking down exercises with the elderly and people with osteoarthritis.
In addition, it should be noted not to exercise strenuously when plasma glucose is low and complications should be checked regularly, nerve, heart,… before exercise.
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Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder...Zalo WebWeb
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